Many organizations try to solve problems by making rules. For example, they want to prevent accounts from being compromised due to weak passwords, so they institute a password policy. But any policy with specific rules gets in the way of legitimate choices and is vulnerable to being gamed by the lazy. This isn’t because people are bad, it’s because you didn’t properly align incentives.
For example, a bank might require passwords with at least one capital letter and a number. However, things like “Password1” are barely more secure than “password”. (You get them on the second phase of running Crack, not the first phase. Big deal.) A user who chose that password was just trying to get around the rule, not choose something secure. Meanwhile, a much more secure password like “jnizwbier uvnqera” would fail the rule.
The solution is not more rules. It is twofold: give users a “why” and a “how”. You put the “why” up in great big red letters and then refer to the “how”. If users ignore this step, your “why” is not compelling enough. Come up with a bigger carrot or stick.
The “why” is a benefit or penalty. You could give accountholders a free coffee if their account goes 1 year without being compromised or requiring a password reset. Or, you can make them responsible for any money spent on their account if an investigation shows it was compromised via a password.
The “how” in this case is a short tutorial on how to choose a good passphrase, access to a good random password generator program, and enough characters (256?) to prevent arbitrary limits on choices.
That’s it. Once you align incentives and provide the means to succeed, rules are irrelevant. This goes for any system, not just passwords.