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July 19, 2009

XMLDsig welcomes all signatures

Filed under: Crypto,Network,Protocols,Security,Software engineering — Nate Lawson @ 12:18 pm

There’s a new flaw in the W3C XMLDsig standard, found by Thomas Roessler. This standard specifies the procedure for signing and validating XML data, such as for SOAP. The document is validated with HMAC; however, an additional parameter can be supplied, <HMACOutputLength>. This allows the signer to use a truncated HMAC.

As you may remember, an HMAC is a way of validating data by using a secret key and a cryptographic hash algorithm. I avoid using the term “keyed hash” as that leads to bad implementations like “HASH(key || data)”. The output of an HMAC is the size of the hash algorithm, say 160 bits for SHA-1. This value is sometimes truncated in space-constrained designs. For example, only the first 128 bits might be sent and verified. This is sometimes acceptable because circumventing an HMAC requires a second-preimage attack (2n), unlike forging a signature which only requires a collision (2n/2).

The problem is that there is no specified lower bound on <HMACOutputLength>. So this is a perfectly valid signature field in XMLDsig:

<SignatureMethod Algorithm="http://www.w3.org/2000/09/xmldsig#hmac-sha1">
      <HMACOutputLength>0</HMACOutputLength>
</SignatureMethod>

Yes, an attacker can send any request and any signature and it will be accepted if the server follows the field blindly and validates only 0 bits. Even a server that checked for 0 might allow a truncated length of 1 bit or 8 bits or whatever.

According to the advisory, it has taken 6 months to release this simple spec erratum. This is because it affected so many vendors. This is a great example how a little leniency in crypto can have a huge impact on security.

Also, I’m not certain this bug is actually fixed. For example, I see that the algorithm can be specified by the same field. So could an attacker specify a broken algorithm like MD4, which has a second-preimage attack? If the server’s crypto library just maps the given Algorithm field to a hash function, this might be possible.

The spec says:

Requirements are specified over implementation, not over requirements for signature use. Furthermore, the mechanism is extensible; alternative algorithms may be used by signature applications.

So it’s not clear whether or not this is a problem, although ambiguity in crypto is one of the biggest sources of flaws.

The most annoying thing about this entire vulnerability is why were truncated HMACs even included in the standard at all? This is XML we’re talking about, not some packed binary protocol. The difference between full HMAC-SHA1 and the new minimum allowed truncated value is 10 bytes (plus base64 encoding expansion). You’re telling me that it’s worth exposing all your implementers to this kind of crypto risk to save 10 bytes? Really?

July 15, 2009

Next Baysec: July 21 at Kate O’Briens

Filed under: Misc,Security — Nate Lawson @ 11:21 am

The next Baysec meeting is July 21 at Kate O’Briens. Come out and meet fellow security people from all over the Bay Area. As always, this is not a sponsored meeting, there is no agenda or speakers, and no RSVP is needed.

See you Tuesday, July 21st, 7-11 pm. We’ll be towards the back.

Kate O’Briens
579 Howard St. @ 2nd, San Francisco
(415) 882-7240

July 14, 2009

NaCl: DJB’s new crypto library

Filed under: Crypto,Network,Protocols,python,Security — Nate Lawson @ 11:53 am

NaCl is a new crypto library, courtesy of Dan Bernstein of qmail fame and Tanja Lange. After my series of posts on why crypto libraries have seriously hurt web security by offering an API that is too low-level, I was pleased to find NaCl’s main interface is high-level. In addition to the kind of fanatical attention to security you can expect from DJB, it also has his unique (some would say quirky) viewpoint.

On a related note, I’m sorry to say I have to withdraw my recommendation of Google Keyczar. It has had another vulnerability announced, this time in the random source for the python library. This is exactly the same attack against DSA I described previously. I may reconsider this decision as it matures.

There’s a lot Keyczar gets right. Its high-level API and key management make a lot of sense. Up until recently, there haven’t been many high-level libraries I could recommend. Gutmann’s cryptlib is probably the best one. It has been around a while and is implemented in C with multiple language bindings. It is covered by the Sleepycat license, so it works like the GPL or you can pay for closed-source use. GPGME provides well-reviewed crypto with the simple PGP usage model. However, it only offers a C API. It also works by forking the command-line gpg underneath, something that may bother some developers. It is covered by the LGPL license.

While cryptlib and GPGME have been around a while, I have not personally reviewed either of them and can’t vouch for their implementation security. When I found the timing attack in Keyczar’s HMAC verification, I took a brief look around. It seemed ok overall, but I did not do a thorough review. I was so glad to see another high-level library that I included Keyczar along with cryptlib and GPGME as a good alternative to implementing your own crypto in a recent talk. I should have emphasized that while these libraries are taking the right approach, we need much more thorough reviews by cryptographers before standardizing on them. Keyczar, as the newest library of those three, deserved a note that it especially needed review.

NaCl is the latest entry on the scene and it shows a lot of promise. Take a moment to read its design features. The code is public domain. It offers a set of high-level functions such as:

There are some good things to be excited about here. The design is extremely high-speed, although that isn’t my personal priority. The high-level APIs are good but not perfect. For example, the caller is expected to specify a nonce and set certain bytes to zero for crypto_box. This is a little too much control for a high-level API. It might be better if NaCl created its own nonce using its PRNG (/dev/urandom, actually), and then focused on making sure it was seeded well.

The design and implementation security, as expected for DJB, is excellent. (Note that I have not done a thorough review and thus cannot yet recommend it.) For example, he focuses on side channel resistance, creating a non-branching scalar multiplication routine and an API for comparing secrets that resists timing attacks. Also, his design choice of using ECDH, a stream cipher, and a MAC algorithm to implement crypto_box fit together well.

However, that’s where the quirkiness comes in. As with qmail, DJB has a really unique way of doing things. The default ECDH implementation uses Curve25519, the stream cipher is Salsa20, and the authenticator is Poly1305. All of these are primitives designed by DJB in the past four years. If it wasn’t DJB, you’d think I was crazy to even consider a library that implements all new ciphers and constructions. Even though I respect him and these may turn out to be good choices, four years is not enough time to review all of these to be certain they are sound. This will limit NaCl’s appeal until more standard ciphers are available.

While NaCl is a good start, here’s what is missing before it can be more widely adopted:

  • Language bindings: NaCl is C-only for now and needs at least Java, python, and C# bindings
  • More standard crypto primitives: NIST P-256 or other curves, AES, and SHA2-HMAC
  • Signature API: ability to do public-key signatures

Since all these items are marked TODO, it’s clear that Dan recognizes the need for them as well. Perhaps NaCl will mature into the library of choice in the future. If you’re a cryptographer and have a chance to review it, please publish your findings. If you’re a developer, how about contributing language bindings?

On a side note, I’m convinced that the right way to create a crypto library is to do a single implementation in C with architecture awareness (e.g., cache layout, some assembly language) and then offer language bindings. This is the route NaCl and cryptlib took. It’s nearly impossible to prevent side channel attacks when your crypto is implemented in a high-level language.

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