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January 21, 2009

Introducing xum1541: the fast C64 floppy USB adapter

Filed under: C64,Hardware — Nate Lawson @ 4:26 pm

I’ve been working on a project in my spare time that I’m now ready to announce. It is a USB interface for the C64 1541 floppy drive, which allows it to be connected to a modern PC. In conjunction with the OpenCBM software, this allows files and whole disk images to be transferred to and from the drive.

Previously, there were a number of ways to connect your PC to a 1541, but they all required a built-in printer port. These have become rare on modern systems. USB is the logical choice for a new adapter but has its own complexities.

In 2007, the xu1541 project by Till Harbaum developed a simple USB adapter. This was a nice improvement. On the plus side, the hardware was very cheap to build and it offered decent compatibility. However, the device was slow due to implementing the USB protocol in software and required a lot of skill to set up since it had to be hand-built and bootstrapped with JTAG.

The xum1541 (pronounced “zoom”) is built from a modified version of the xu1541 firmware. It is a USB full speed device and supports high-speed parallel cables. The hardware USB support significantly speeds up transfers. It will support mnib (aka nibtools), which provides low-level imaging to backup copy protected disks. I’m most excited about this feature since it is critical to archiving original floppies for the C64 Preservation Project.

The first version of the hardware is based on the AT90USBKEY development board. This board costs about $30 and comes with a preinstalled USB bootloader. To turn it into an xum1541, it just needs a small daughtercard for the IEC connectors and parallel cable. It’s easy to upload the firmware with the Atmel FLIP software, no JTAG cable needed. I’m hoping that future versions will be a fully custom board and that someone will manufacture them for users who don’t have any hardware skills.

xum1541 USB floppy adapter

xum1541 USB floppy adapter

The project is currently in the alpha stage. I have a working firmware that is mostly compatible with the xu1541. It runs out of the CVS version of OpenCBM and works although it has a few bugs. I’m currently working to implement nibbler support and to improve the transfer speed. I’m trying to do this without sacrificing too much xu1541 compatibility to keep the OpenCBM software changes minimal.

Both Wolfgang Moser and Spiro Trikaliotis have been helpful on this project. Wolfgang has been testing my firmware on his own setup, so there are two xum1541s in existence now. Also, he has been prototyping various designs for both a daughterboard for the USBKEY and the second version of the xum1541, which would not be based on the USBKEY developer’s kit. Instead, it would be a fully custom board which will allow it to be even cheaper. Spiro has assisted with debugging some IEC problems.

Wolfgang Moser's xum1541

Wolfgang Moser's xum1541

All of this is in the early stages so no promises on delivery date. The last 10% of a project is always 90% of the effort. The first step is to finish support for the nibbler protocol and improve performance. Next, we will polish the firmware and OpenCBM software to support the new device (too many #ifdefs right now). The first release would provide firmware and software for people willing to build their own daughterboard for the USBKEY. Eventually, I hope there would be custom boards available for those who don’t want to build anything.

This project has been a lot of fun, and I look forward to posting more updates soon. Here’s a video of the xum1541 in operation:

January 10, 2009

Next Baysec: January 15th at Gordon Biersch

Filed under: Security — Nate Lawson @ 1:47 pm

The next Baysec meeting is this Thursday at Gordon Biersch. Come out and meet fellow security people from all over the Bay Area. As always, this is not a sponsored meeting, there is no agenda or speakers, and no RSVP is needed. Thanks go to Ryan Russell for planning all this.

See you January 15th, 7-11 pm.

Gordon Biersch
2 Harrison St
San Francisco, CA 94105
(415) 243-8246

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